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. (R. Gordon Gould) 1909 . . . , . 1947 . .

. (Walter A. Jacobs) 1883 . -. . , 1923 . . .


- , 4-, -.

, .

4- - :

1. - , (I):

2. (I) ( ) --4- (II):

3. (II) (III) 4-- (IV):

4- .

- - 7- 4-. 7--4- ( 60%) -. , , - (. 164), 7--4- 5--4-.

(. )

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